Posts Tagged ‘os x’

Universal ROP shellcode for OS X x64

23/07/2011 12 comments

One of the hurdles one will encounter during OS X exploitation is ASLR/DEP combination for 64-bit processes (32bit don’t have DEP [1]). When implemented correctly, it’s an effective mitigation, which can be circumvented only with an info leak. (Un)fortunately, OS X versions up to recent Lion (10.7) offer only incomplete ASLR which still allows attackers to succeed in their efforts to execute arbitrary code. One of the problems (among others) is dyld (dynamic loader) image being located at the same address in every process. This makes ROP possible — by controlling the stack, we can reuse snippets of code from dyld and, in effect, execute arbitrary code.

The only public ROP dyld shellcode for OS X was presented in [1]. Charlie Miller’s version works under the assumption that that rax/rdi have specific values. Due to x64 calling convention [2] it is very probable that this precondition is met. Nevertheless it would be useful to create a shellcode with weaker assumptions — that’s exactly what this post is about. We will create a generic ROP shellcode, similiar to sayonara, but for OS X :).

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