## Hyperelliptic curve crypto — Dcoder’s keygenme #2

Apparently ordinary elliptic curves in crackmes are getting boring, so Dcoder decided to make things interesting with hyperelliptic curves. Due to intricate nature of HE curves, performing computations on them is more expensive, than for ordinary curves, but on the other hand HE curves provide superior bitstrength security, with regard to size of the base field, they are defined over.

In this blog post, I will try to introduce HE curves, and how to use them in crypto. Using that knowledgle, it will be easy to analyze and break a signature scheme implemented in keygenme #2 by Dcoder. Note that this won’t be a rigorous mathematical dissertation, but a “tutorial” for mathematically inclined programmerđź™‚.

# Hyperelliptic curves

The most general definition of an elliptic curve, is

.

is just a set of points fulfilling an equation that is quadratic in terms of and cubic in . By introducting a special point (point at infinity) it’s possible to equip with “point addition“, turning it into an abelian group.

Hyperelliptic curves are more complicated. HE curve of genus over a field is defined as:

where , , , and monic. Elliptic curves are hyperelliptic curves with . To define addition on , we need to jump through few mathematical hoopsđź™‚.

### Zeros and poles

Consider rational functions over algebraically closed field. Let . It’s easy to see, that is a zero of . It’s also evident, that .

If for a given , , we will say that has a **pole** at . When , we will say that has a pole at infinity. This is to provide intuition, just remember that pole at infinity == function is not bound at infinity. To be able to compute order of such pole, compute order of pole of .

is a zero of order for , if is the largest integer, such that , where is a rational function. Order of a pole is similar: is a pole of order if is the largest integer, such that . Notice we are allowed to factor this way, because we are working over an algebraically closed field, and because of fundamental theorem of algebra.

In our example, has a zero of order 3 at , a pole of order 2 at and a pole of order 1 at infinity.

Another example. Let . is a zero of order 5. We also have a pole at infinity. To compute its order, we need to know the order of of , so order = 5.

### Divisors

Consider set of rational functions over , where HE curve is defined over . “Over” means our function acts on points of , so for , arguments and satisfy “for free”.

To keep track of zeros and poles of a function, we can use a **divisor**. You can think about them as multisets allowing negative number of elements. For example, let have a zero of order 2 at , zero of order 1 at , pole of order 2 at and pole of order 1 at infinity. Divisor of is . Note that divisors aren’t supposed to be evaluated (plus and minus signs are not for point addition/subtraction), they are just “lists”, or “multisets” of zeros/poles. You can look at like it’s a list: .

More formally, for a nonzero rational function on , its divisor is given by

where almost all of coefficients are zero (there are finitely many nonzero). is defined as:

- Â , Â if is a zero of order ,
- Â , if is a pole of order ,
- Â 0, if is neither a zero, nor a pole.

is “order of vanishing of function at point “. For details see [1] (page 8). You can assume that computing orders works like for ordinary rational functions, so it’s ok to factor nominator / denominator, etc (this isn’t 100% true, but that’s not imporant).

To continue, we need

**Theorem 1**

*Let be a rational function on , thenÂ .*

For proof, see theorem 4.6, page 9 in [1]. This theorem is useful for computing divisors. For , compute zeros of and (poles of ) and check if their orders (using definition of above) sum to 0. If not, add / subtract point at infinity.

We can add / subtract divisors, by adding / subtracting like terms. For example, let (over complex numbers), where (genus 1 curve), , .

To find we need to know zeros and poles of . Since , there are 3 points on with : . There are two points with : . Points are zeros and are poles, so ( was added to satisfy theorem 1). Similary ().

Now, , where . You might notice, that . Indeed, it’s true that:

From the above properties, it follows that set of divisors of rational functions (we will call them principal divisors) form a subgroup of all divisors . We will denote subgroup of divisors of degree 0 (with sum of coefficients equal to zero) as . Theorem 1 implies that .

Here comes the magic part.

We define quotient groupÂ as:

is called the degree zero part of the Picard (or divisor class) group of .

For a hyperelliptic curve of genus , there exists an abelian variety of dimension which is isomorphic to . is called the Jacobian of .

You can safely disregard the magic part above. The important thing to know is that with HE curves, we perform operations on its Jacobian. has its own group law, that uses reduced divisors in their Mumford representation.

If you want to just implement HE crypto, you can treat Cantor’s algorithm and Mumford representation as blackboxes given by mathematicians, but I think it’s useful to know how divisors work and what Mumford polynomials represent.

It’s time to analyze our target and show some examples.

### Keygenme

Dcoder implemented polynomial operations on his own, so we are forced to identify them by hand, by looking at the disassembly. This part is easy, so I’ll skip itđź™‚.

What’s not easy is identifying the protection scheme, without knowing how HE crypto works. There are many clues that the keygenme implements elliptic curve crypto. For example, here’s a top level view of a part of the verification procedure:

decode_serial(&part4, &part3, &part2, &part1); serial_part12 = __PAIR__(part2 << 32 >> 32, part1); v20 = part3; f1(&k1_Px, &k1_Py, &f, &h, &Px, &Py, part3 + (part4 << 32)); f1(&k2_Qx, &k2_Qy, &f, &h, &Qx, &Qy, serial_part12); f2(&k1_Px, &k1_Py, &f, &h, &k1_Px, &k1_Py, &k2_Qx, &k2_Qy);

Looking inside f1, we see:

do { f2(&a3a, &v13, f, h, &a3a, &v13, &a3a, &v13); if ( k & (1i64 << v7) ) f2(&a3a, &v13, f, h, &a3a, &v13, in_x, in_y); --v7; } while ( v7 >= 0 );

This looks like double and addÂ algorithm for elliptic curves, so our hypothesis is that f1 is point multiplication and f2 point addition. We can verify this by feeding values to these functions and checking their output. For example, computing P+P and 2*P should produce the same result. Quick check shows that’s indeed the case.

With high level functions identified, it’s easy to see that we are dealing with Nyber-Rueppel signature scheme. In order to emit correct signatures, we need to solve an instance of discrete logarithm problem.

Even without knowing that we are dealing with HE curves, we can just rip the code for point addition and use it as a blackbox in Pollard’s kangaroo (lambda) algorithm. Kangaroo attack works in all groups and uses only addition and multiplication in that group. Running time is , where is the interval containing the discrete log.. Notice that we can’t use Pollard’s rho (which is faster by a constant), because rho requires group’s order as a parameter and we have no means to compute it without knowing what group we are dealing with.

EvenÂ with Pollard’s kangaroo, we still need to know how large the order is. If it’s too big, then perhaps we need to be smarter about finding this DLOG. We can obtain a rough estime, by observing what kind of points we are getting out of point addition/multiplication procedures.

Quick inspection in debugger shows, that coordinate is always a monic polynomial of degree at most 4, and a polynomial of degree at most 3. Since we are working with polynomials over with , there can be at most (we expect our curve to be symmetric, thus the additional 2 factor) such points in our mysterious groupđź™‚.Â It’s a lot, but remember that kangaroo attack has a running time of , so in our case which is low enough for kangaroo to be practical.

### The curve

Knowing we are dealing with hyperelliptic curve, we can be more specfic about group’s order — we can actually compute it exactly and this will allow us to use Pollard’s rho, instead of kangaroo.

Here are the params, in SAGE format:

x = GF(8191)['x'].gen() f = 3076 + 1177*x + 6969 * x^2 + 294*x^3 + 6512*x^4 + 7340*x^5 + 5891*x^6 + 3050*x^7 + 0*x^8 + 1*x^9 H = HyperellipticCurve(f) J = H.jacobian() X = J(GF(8191)) Px = 1875 + 1721*x + 5809*x^2 + 5647*x^3 + 1*x^4 Py = 6019 + 3070*x + 1666*x^2 + 688*x^3 Qx = 4134 + 2027*x + 4475*x^2 + 4255*x^3 + 1*x^4 Qy = 6525 + 928*x + 1361*x^2 + 6937*x^3 P = X([Px,Py]) Q = X([Qx,Qy]) O = P-P frob = H.frobenius_polynomial() order = frob(1) dlog = 3414275298009790 print order*P == O, dlog*P == Q

Running the above in SAGE will produce *True, True* on output, which means order of jacobian and the dlog are indeed correct.

The HE we are working on is , where and , so genus . Since we are working with polynomials over , with , jacobian will be defined over .

Order of jacobian is given explicitly by , where is its characteristic (Frobenius) polynomial (page 6, [2]).

The exact order isÂ 4518471260972087 (~2^52), which is 2 times smaller than our rough estimate of 2^53, so knowing the exact order decreases the running time of kangaroo by a factor of .

We can also bound the order using Hasse-Weil theorem. In our case, theorem states that order lies in the interval . The upper bound is 1.08 times larger than the exact order, so it’d be a very good estimate.

Kangaroo implemented with FLINTÂ solves the DLP in under an hour, using one 2GHz core. The solution is Â 3414275298009790.

**Summary**

For hyperelliptic curves, group law is defined for their Jacobians. To “add points” use Mumford representation and Cantor’s algorithm. For solving DLP over HE curves, you can use general purpose algorithms like Pollard’s rho/lambda, Pohlig Hellman, or index calculus. Note that curves of high genus are insecure in the sense that index calculus runs in Â subexponential time for them (see here for a discussion). For bounding/computing order, use Hasse-Weil theorem, or Frobenius polynomial.

Sources available on github, as usual.

Few serials, to prove correctness :):

pa_kt 38531D6B8FDF2A884166423D58B125B2 - trololo C356A2AB43CA6ACCEF72CCEE0C3FD40A - crackmes.us 076C49CC3AFF9D25CE8B7CA783B72430

P.S.

Dcoder pointed out I should mention theÂ Riemann-Roch theorem. Thanks to R-R it’s possible to construct the isomorphism between and (it ensures the existence of reduced divisors).

**References**

[1]Â Leonard S. Charlap, David P. Robbins,Â *An Elementary Introduction to Elliptic CurvesÂ *

[2]Â Pierrick Gaudry, Robert Harley,Â *Counting Points on Hyperelliptic Curves over Finite Fields*

How did u get so good at this? Great writeup, im into math but I havent yet gotten as far as understanding elliptic curves

Read “Handbook of applied cryptography”đź™‚